The Early Modern Commons

Voltaire Foundation

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Voltaire and the Jacobites

20 March 2017

An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745 (The Battle of Culloden), by David Morier, 1746, image Wikimedia Commons. Voltaire had long-running and complicated relationships with the Jacobites,...

Voltaire and the one-liner

10 March 2017

To mark the publication at Oxford University Press of his new book ‘Voltaire: A Very Short Introduction’, a contribution to their Very Short Introductions series, Nicholas...

Françoise de Graffigny, gouvernante et observatrice de l’éducation des femmes

8 March 2017

Françoise de Graffigny by Pierre-Augustin Clavareau. Lunéville, musée du château des Lumières. Photo: T. Franz, Conseil départemental 54. Pour...

The Scottish Enlightenment four stages theory: a (re-)introduction

1 March 2017

There are few paradigms more tightly connected with the Scottish Enlightenment than the four stages theory. Yet it arguably remains one of the least understood. James Tassie, Medallion...